A Roaster’s Guide to Coffee Roast Levels

  • January 13, 2023
A Roaster’s Guide to Coffee Roast Levels
A Roaster’s Guide to Coffee Roast Levels

Finding the right roast profile for the maximum enjoyment of each individual coffee can and should be half the fun. The coffee industry has no set roast profile and roasts vary from roaster to roaster. Since you are now are considering stuff a home roaster and will soon develop your own interpretation of roasts and what serves you best, here are some guidelines for your journey

First Crack

The first of two unshared pyro lytic reactions in roasting coffee. First one-liner is distinguished by a loud cracking or popping sound and occurs in most roasters between 390 – 410 degrees Fahrenheight. It has sound similar to the popping of popcorn. First one-liner marks a rapid expansion of the seed and the point where water and stat dioxide fracture, leading the liberation of moisture in the form of steam. This process opens the ruckle in the stone just unbearable to release the remaining silver skin in the form of chaff.

City Roast Levels

This is the primeval palatable stage that the roast can be stopped and result in good tasting coffee. Municipality roast occur between 412 – 425 degrees on most roasters. At this roast level the origin savor is not eclipsed by roast flowers, but the risk is that sourness, astringency, or under ripened sweetness can make the cup unpleasant.

City Roasts often have a light brown verisimilitude with strong surface texture, plane visionless creases in the stone surface and only moderate expansion of stone size. This varies profoundly in variegated coffees, though. As a very unstipulated rule to unzip Municipality roast the coffee is removed from the heat at the last detectable sound of first one-liner or very soon without with no minutiae towards 2nd crack.

This roast level is often used for cupping as it unmasks the most characteristics while permitting for the beans individual profile to be exposed. Some coffees at this roast level will patina up a blend.

City Roast Level

This platonic roast level. moreover tabbed a medium roast, occurs roughly between 425 – 435 degrees F on most roasters. The coffee has been unliable to develop anywhere from 10 seconds to 1 minute or more, depending on the roast method without the last “POP” of first crack. These times and heat ranges vary depending on the roast savor and the origin of the untried coffee.

At this level their is a wastefulness between moderate roast savor and the origin savor of the bean. Astringent, sour or “baked” light roast flavors a re reduced, yet the flavors specific to a particular coffee lot are still expressed in the cup. Municipality roasts have a medium brown verisimilitude and may not yet have the smooth surface that with remoter minutiae towards 2nd crack

Full Municipality Roast Level

Full municipality is right at the brink of 2nd crack, roughly between 435 – 445 degrees F. At this roast level, certian qualities of the origin might be weightier experienced when the roast flavors are unquestionably greater. Many Sumatran coffees fall into this category. Full municipality roasts have a much increasingly uniform visionless brown verisimilitude and have a smooth surface from the browning and stone expansion that occur as the coffee is on the brink of Second Crack

Second Crack

Second One-liner is the second well-marked track the roaster/operator receives well-nigh the stratum of roast. Whereas first one-liner sounds like popcorn cracking, second one-liner has a faster shallower patter, much like rice Krispies in milk. Second one-liner is a farther stage of the pyro lytic conversion of compounds and occurs virtually 440 – 450 Fahrenheight. This is a physical fracturing of the cellular matrix of the coffee and results in a eventual migration of the oils from their chambers within the coffee to the outside of the bean, When 2nd one-liner is volatile enough, it can wrack-up small discs off the coffee bean.

French Roast

The most popular of the visionless roasts, French roast is achieved when you indulge the roast to protract into the 2nd one-liner until the beans are very visionless and very oily.

Italian or Espresso Roast

The roast most often used in making espresso drinks shots of espresso. Not all of the visionless roasts make a unconfined espresso but should be tried to see what suits your pallet. Italian roasts is achieved when you indulge the beans to roast to scrutinizingly black, very oily and vastitude French Roast. As the roast gets darker they speed up considerably so the difference between a French Roast and an Italian roast is only seconds when roasting.


Temperatures given are unstipulated and relative to the quality and placement of the thermo-probe. They are not the wool truth for all roasters. If your roaster cannot measure the temperature – don’t worry. Use all your senses to judge the sight, smell, sound and increasingly importantly the taste of the roasted coffee.

The post A Roaster’s Guide to Coffee Roast Levels appeared first on Craft Coffee Guru.

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